Treaties, books and reports on Africa`s regional integration After the Kigali Summit, more signatures were added to the AfCFTA. At the African Union summit in Nouakchott on 1 July 2018, five other nations, including South Africa, joined the agreement. Kenya and Ghana were the first nations to ratify the agreement and file their ratifications on 10 May 2018.  Of the signatories, 22 had to ratify the agreement in order for it to enter into force, and it happened on 29 April 2019, when Sierra Leone and the Arab Democratic Republic of the Sahara ratified the agreement.  As a result, the agreement came into force 30 days later on 30 May 2019; At that time, only Benin, Nigeria and Eritrea had not signed. Outstanding issues, such as trade agreements and rules of origin, are still being negotiated. [when?] Online Research Documents General documents relating to regional trade agreements carry the WT/REG document code. As part of the Doha Agenda trade negotiations mandate, they use TN/RL/O (additional values needed). These links open a new window: Allow a moment for the results to appear. Yulia Vnukova advises the World Bank in the Department of Trade and Regional Integration (ETIRI). Based on more than a decade of experience, Yulia`s current work focuses on trade policy and regional integration, focusing on macroeconomic and microeconomic analyses of trade, trade and sectoral competitiveness, global value chains and private sector development in emerging countries in Europe, Asia and Africa.
Whatever its historical significance, much remains to be done before countries can benefit from a free trade area. Countries committed to the agreement are expected to present their timetables for concessions for trade in goods and services by next year. Concession schedules outline products and services that countries will no longer tax. The section contains various indicators of trade structure, trade in services, investment flows, trade facilitation, tariffs and non-tariff measures, as well as exchange rates. Intra-African trade is currently only 16%, compared to 19% in Latin America, 51% in Asia, 54% in North America and 70% in Europe. Trudi Hartzenberg, executive director of the Trade Law Centre, a South African-based think tank, told Africa Renewal that while the free trade area could significantly improve competitiveness and promote intra-African trade, it also requires “strong technical leadership and capacity to help member states in future negotiations…. We are also witnessing strong protective currents in the global economy. The framework itself stipulates that by 2022, participating countries will have to remove tariffs on 90% of the products they produce and eliminate non-tariff barriers, such as border duty delays, import quotas, subsidies, regulatory bottlenecks, etc. Intra-African trade has increased in recent years to 15.4%. Nevertheless, Asia and Europe remain the continent`s main trading partners. A high dependence on trade in primary goods, a high concentration of exports of goods and markets, and weak regional production networks are one of the main challenges facing African countries. The 12th African Union extraordinary meeting on AfCFTA was convened to bring the new agreement into its operational phase, which was held in Niamey on 7 July 2019.   The first part provides an overview of Africa in the global economy and intra-African trade.
The last part contains clear statistics on trade in goods and services in Africa over the past ten years. Given that the Nigerian government continued to consult with local business groups in the second half of 2018, one of the main concerns was whether the agreement adequately prevented anti-competitive practices such as dumping.  At the close of 2018, former President Olusegun