Lusaka Agreement

On 15 July 1999, the Secretary-General of the United Nations issued a report recommending the dispatch of an observation mission to the Democratic Republic of Congo. On July 23, the U.S. State Department announced its support for a peace mission. The MLC signed the agreement on August 1. Five days later, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1258, which deployed military liaison personnel to the capitals of the States that signed the Ceasefire Agreement and worked to establish a joint military commission to monitor their implementation. The rebel group Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) signed the agreement on 31 August. The Security Council established the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) in Resolution 1273 adopted from 5 November to 15 January 2000. Resolution 1279, adopted on 30 November, extended the mandate until 1 March 2000. [4] Zambian President Frederick Chiluba played an important role in signing the agreement as President of the Regional Peace Initiative in the Democratic Republic of Congo. [1] The Lusaka ceasefire agreement attempted to end the Second Congo War through a ceasefire, the release of prisoners of war and the deployment of an international peacekeeping force under the aegis of the United Nations.

The heads of state of Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe signed the agreement on 10 July 1999 in Lusaka, Zambia. [1] [2] Representatives of the Southern African Development Community, the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations met in Lusaka and drafted the ceasefire agreement from 21 to 27 June 1999. The defence and foreign ministers of the parties to the conflict then met from 29 June to 7 July to discuss the agreement. [1] The parties agreed to terminate all military operations within 24 hours of the signing of the Article I agreement, paragraph 2, point c). Article I prohibited the continuation of military transfer or transfer of arms on the battlefield and called on all nations to respect human rights and protect civilians. Article III referred all prisoners of war to Article 8 and entrusted the International Red Cross with the task of assisting the wounded in Article 9. Article 11 called for the deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping force in accordance with Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations. [3] The document called on the OAU to establish a temporary peacekeeping force to fight militant groups until UN forces arrived. [2] Mwesiga Laurent Baregu and Chris Landsberg of the International Academy for Peace criticized the provision in 2003 and said that the OAU was overwhelmed and that SADC was better equipped to end the charge.